||Sources; Comments; Links
War, or Tyrone's Rebellion.
"In June, 1602, Mountjoy marched north to prosecute the war against the rebels, and remained in Ulster during the autumn and winter, traversing the country in all directions, and destroying the poor people's means of subsistence.
"And now the famine, so deliberately planned, swept through the whole country; and Ulster was, if possible, in a worse condition than Munster. For the ghastly results of the deputy's cruel policy we have his own testimony, as well as that of his secretary, the historian Moryson. Mountjoy writes:--'We have seen no one man in all Tyrone of late but dead carcases merely hunger starved, of which we found divers as we passed. Between Tullaghoge and Toome (seventeen miles) there lay unburied 1000 dead, and since our first drawing this year to Blackwater there were about 3000 starved in Tyrone.' But this did not satisfy him; for soon after he says:--'Tomorrow (by the grace of God) I am going into the field, as near as I can utterly to waste the county Tyrone.' Next hear Moryson. 'Now because I have often made mention formerly of our destroying the rebels' corn, and using all means to famish them, let me by one or two examples show the miserable estate to which the rebels were thereby brought.' He then gives some hideous details, which show, if indeed showing was needed, that the women and children and peaceable people were famished as well as the actual rebels. And he goes on to say:--'And no spectacle was more frequent in the ditches of towns than to see multitudes of these poor people dead with their mouths all coloured green by eating nettles, docks, and all things they could rend up above ground.'
|Joyce (1903), pp. 273-4.|
| early 1600s
|| The area between
Kilrea and Coleraine was thickly wooded. "[T]he site of
the future market town of Kilrea was marked by a cluster
of thatched houses close by the Church, after the manner
of the ancient feudal castle [at Movanagher] and its
circle of huts, while on the neighbouring townlands were
scattered the homesteads of the farmers and labourers. ...
From the name of the herenagh or layman who farmed the
property and had the upkeep of the Church, the place was
nominated Kilrea O'Demon, or O'Diamond."
|| The Fairy Thorn
(1984), pg. 3.
Kernohan (1912), pp. 5-6.
Note: In an unpublished thesis (1976), A.E. Hamlin described the ancient church ruins as dating to the post-medieval period. The NIEA cites a period ranging from the medieval, through late and post-medieval. Source: "SM.7/LDY 27:3, Kilrea, Mod CoI and post med ruin in graveyard, site of Med. P.C., " NIEA.
||"In the brief lull or interval of peace that succeeded [the Nine Years' War], from the spring of 1602-1607," the numbers of cattle and growing crops--which had been so decimated during the Nine Years' War--appear to have recuperated to a remarkable degree. "On the flight of the earls at the latter date, Sir Thomas Phillips made a journey from Coleraine to Dungannon, through the wooded country of Loch-inis-O'Lynn, or Loughinsholin, and thereupon wrote to Salisbury, expressing among other matters, his unfeigned astonishment at the sight of so many cattle and such abundance of grain as he had observed all along his route from the one town to the other."||Hill (1877), pg. viii.
Link to transcription, After the Nine Years' War.
||(1) After the
battle of Kinsale, O'Neill burned his own castle at
Dungannon, and betook himself to the inaccessible fastness
(2) "O'Neill was not able to make any headway against Mountjoy and Docwra, both of whom continued to plant garrisons all through the province. With the few followers that remained to him, he retired into the impenetrable bogs and forests; and far from taking active measures, he had quite enough to do to preserve himself and his party from utter destruction. But he refused to submit, still clinging fondly to the expectation of help from abroad."
(1888), pp. 620-1.
(2) Joyce (1903), pg. 274.
Note: The "inaccessible fastness," to which Cannon referred, were the extensive tracts of densely wooded forests in the territories of Killetragh and Glenconkeyne.
||Of Kilrea, Bishop
Montgomery's survey stated, "Near Aghadowey are Kilrea and
Agivey a place of canons where in the chapel is an image
of the Blessed Mary to which there was frequent
pilgrimage. Two quarters of land are granted by the
Primate and Abbot of Armagh for stabling the horses of the
Bishop of Derry and human accommo-dation. The herenagh is
John O'Diamond." (translated from the Latin)
||Account by Mr.
Bernard Fitzpatrick; cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg.
monasteries of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine and
their lands in Kilrea and Agivey were given by Queen
Elizabeth I to Sir Toby Caulfield (ancestor of Lord
(2) "One of the grants made to Sir Toby recites the names of balliboes in the neighbourhood of Kilrea:--Inishrush, Agheiter, Teanewye [Tyanee], Moynegrane; the precinct of Killreaugh containing five balliboes of Ballyheregny [Erganagh], Claryletrim [Leitrim is the name of a hill in Claragh], Ballylelanane, Ballyawlagh, and ffalacogey [Fallahogy]. Two of these denominations, Ballylelanane (or Ballynealane) and Ballyawlagh, are obsolete, the present townland of Kilrea covering both." [The transcriber's notes have been placed within square brackets.]
(3) "Sir Toby Caulfield, descended from a family of great antiquity and worth in the county of Oxford, taking to a military life, performed many brave and heroic actions against the enemies of queen Elizabeth, in Spain, the Low Countries, and Ireland, particularly in the latter, against the arch-rebel Tyrone."
(4) "The abbey of Armagh was demised by his Majesty to Sir Toby, about seven years since, before the plantation was intended; and after the first project, the said abbey, with his (Chichester's) special allowance was passed in fee-farm to Sir Toby, being a servitor. The first grant of these lands was made on the 4th of June, 1607, and the second at some later date which cannot be determined, for it must be considerably earlier than that mentioned in the printed Patent Rolls, viz., 22 May, 10th. The abbey or monastery of St. Peter and St. Paul of Armagh owned extensive lands in the adjoining baronies of Loughinsholin and Coleraine, those in the former being only partially receited in the first or earlier grant, whilst those in Coleraine were altogether omitted. This had occurred, no doubt, because the lands in Loughinsholin were partially known to the servitors in 1607, and the lands in Coleraine belonging to the abbey at Armagh had evidently been then unknown as such. In the later grant the following denominations are recited as lying in the baronies above-named, and as belonging to the abbey at Armagh:--'Tyrone, Co. (barony of Loughinsholin), Inishrush, 2 balliboes; Agheiter, 2 balliboes; Teanewye, 2 balliboes; Moynegrane, 2 balliboes; the precinct of Killreaugh containing the five balliboes of Ballyheregny, Clary, Leitrim, Ballylelanane, Ballyawlagh, and Hallacoghey. Coleraine, Co. (barony of Coleraine), the grange and lands of Agheavy, called Glasgort, Mullaghmore, Gwymore, Coolecrow, and Guybegg, one balliboe each; and Tullaghard, one sessiogh.'"
|(1) Research by
Mrs. Kathleen Gillen; cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg.
(2) Kernohan (1906).
(3) Kimber and Almon (1768), pg. 111.
(4) Hill (1877), pg. 422.
See also, 1609, "(1) "[Q]uoted from a 1609 Inquisition..."; and, 1612/13-02-13, "Sir Toby Calfeild and other gentlemen pretending interests..."
[O'Crilly] monastery, like Kilrea, was under the
jurisdiction of The Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul of
Armagh. In the year 1607 twenty ballyboes of the lands of
that Abbey were granted by letters patent to Sir Toby
Caulfield, ancestor of the Earls of Charlemont."
(2) "The Protestant Bishop Montgomery's survey of the diocese of Derry has this entry for the Parish:
"Deanery of Rathlowery
"Name of the Parish: Tamlaght O'Crilly
"Patron Saint: St. Conlus
"Rector: Eoghan O'Crilly
"Vicar: Donal O'Crilly
"Erenagh: The Rector, Eoghan O'Crilly
"Rent: 40 groats.
"Five acres of glebe are assigned to the rector, three acres to the vicar.
"Procurations: 2s. Pension: 10s. Twenty balliboes."
from a paper written by Miss Clark, cited in The Fairy
Thorn (1984), pg. 63.
(2) Parish of Greenlough (2006).
||The Flight of
the Earls. O'Cahan's country, "which reached from Tyrone
to the sea, and from the Foyle to the Bann, … were
declared forfeited to the Crown of England."
||The Fairy Thorn
(1984), pp. 4-5.
||"John Liegh, in
his Briefe of Some Things, &c., already quoted, has
the following reference to this district:--'In the Barony
of the Glynnes, called Loughinisolyn, the inhabitants,
consisting chiefly of the Neales, the Haggans, the
Mullhallans, with the McCahirs and the Quinnes, are wholly
those which had their absolute dependance upon Tyrone (the
earl) and his sept, and in this place, especially about
that part of the barony called Killytraghe, being a strong
fastness, do inhabit the chief next of those that, upon
any sudden occasion offered them, would first show
themselves in action for Tyrone's party, they being able,
out of this one quarter, to draw together at least 200
able men, and well-armed, within 24 hours. Also, I have
observed that, under colour of having liberty to wear arms
in the time of O'Doughertie's rebellion, for their own
defence, the country is now everywhere full of pikes and
other weapons, which their Irish smiths daily make.'"
Note: John Leigh was sheriff of Tyrone in 1608. The full title of his record is, A Briefe of some things which I observed in the several barones of the county of Tyrone (preserved among the Carew MSS.) Ref. Hill (1877), pg. 161.
||"In Ulster, as
reported by Sir Arthur Chichester, there is no timber in
the counties of Donegal or Coleraine, but good store in
Glenconkeyne, Killetragh, and Bresilagh, and also a
smaller quantity of good timber trees at Kilultagh."
||"The great wood or forest of Glenconkeyne,
well nigh as large as the New Forest in Hampshire, and
lying commodiously on the river Bann, the timber of which
might compare with any in His Majesty's dominions, was
granted (1609) wholly to the City of London, in
perpetuity, to be converted to the furtherance of the
plantation, and not to be used for commercial purposes."
||Lyons (1883), pg. 656ff.
a 1609 Inquisition a passage showing the relation of this
district to the Armagh Abbey: 'Two acres of glebe land,
and also the parish of Kilreagh, containing ten balliboes,
wherein are both a parson and a vicar presentative; and
the presentation of the said parson and vicar, for the
space of 170 years past, have appertained to the abbot of
SS. Peter and Paul of Armagh; and likewise the tithes were
paid unto the said abbot and his predecessors; and that
the said presentation and right of patronage, together
with the said tithes of Kilreagh, lately came to the Crown
by the said Act of Dissolution of Monasteries.' Again, it
was found that at the Dissolution the said abbot was
'seised in his demesne as of free in right of his house,
of and in the four townlands called Kilreagh, in
possession of the herenagh O'Demon, and two parts of the
tithes thereof, and of and in the tithes for the fishing
for eels near adjoining to the same, and also of and in
the two townlands called Monaghgrane, with the tithes
thereof in the parish of Kilreagh aforesaid.' In right of
his grant of two years earlier Sir Toby laid claim to
these lands, the tithes of which he had settled on his
kinsmen; but he was induced to surrender them to make way
for the Londoners, who seem to have got the whole parish
of Kilrea except the present townland of Kilrea itself."
Inquisition, cited by Kernohan (1906).
|1609|| (1) In his
reiteration and analysis of the Visitation conducted by
the Archbishop of Armagh in 1379, the Rev. William Reeves
interleaved footnotes from the 1609 inquisition of Ulster
and 19th century Ordnance Survey notes:
Tawlaght M'[n]inagh.--"Out of the erenagh land of Tawlaght-
drumagarnan, conteyninge five townes [namely, Drumakanany, now Drumnacanon; Drumagarnan, now Drumagarner; Dromeane, now Drumane; Moneyloghran, now Moneystaghan; Dromlishy, now Drumoolish] (whereof the herenagh had one towne free), the yerelie rent of 16s 8d per an."--Inq. The parish is now called Tamlaght-
ocrilly. Dromogaruan.--Now Drumagarner. See above, pg. 53. It had ceased to be a separate parish in 1609, and was returned as part of Tamlaght O'Crilly, as in last note.
The note on pages 53-54 reads as follows: Dromogarvan.--In the ancient Taxation of the diocese this church is called Deregaruan. The latest record of the name is in the Dungannon Inquisition of 1609, where it is noticed in these words: "Tawlaghtdrumagaruan, conteyninge twentie balliboes, wherein is both a parson and a viccar representative, who pay twelve pence a peece proxies to the said lord bushopp of Derry," &c.--(Ul. Inq., App. ii.) However, this name, as well as this description, belongs not to Drumagarvan in particular, but to Tamlaght, commonly called Tamlaght O'Crilly, in which it has merged. The name, now corrupted to Drumagarner, is borne by the extreme townland of the parish on the north-east, which is situated on the high road about half way between Harvey Hill the Glebe, and Kilrea.--(Ord. Surv., s. 27.) There is not a vestige of the church or its cemetery now remaining, but it is known that an eminence at the west side of the road, called "Church Hill," is a spot where the late Thomas Hutcheson, Esq., found, within these sixty years, human skulls and other bones, together with a baptismal font,* The tradition concerning the place is that it was chosen as the site of an intended church, and that the building was commenced, but never perfected, as the materials were carried away by night, and transferred to the more favoured spot in Tamlaght, which is the site of the present church. The tradition, however, corroborates the supposition of a church having been once there, and the present record supplies the rationale of the legend."
The following footnote appears on page 81: Tawlaght Mcninaych.--
The parish is now called Tamlaght O'Crilly, from the O'Crillys who were formerly herenaghs. The family of Ui Cruaúlaoic ** seems to have come hither from Connaught, for they were a branch of the M'Dermots of Moy Lurg. The cemetery, with a roofless church which occupies the site of an older, is in the townland, Drumnacannon, beside the wretched hamlet of Tamlaght.--(Ord. Sur. Londond., s.33.)
(2) "In 1609 Dromagaruan [Drumagarner] had ceased to be a separate parish and was returned as part of Tamlaght O'Crilly but the exact date of the union is not known."
| (1) Reeves (1850),
pp. 53-54, 75, 81.
(2) Reeves' Archbishop Colton's visitation of the See of Derry, cited by Miss Clark, in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 61.
* Of this baptismal font, The Fairy Thorn (1984) states, "The font found by Thomas Hutchinson (circa 1795) was probably a holy waterfont and not a baptismal font as suggested by Dr. Reeves.
** Ui Cruaúlaoic – This is is the best representation of the gaeilge, as produced in the text, that I could obtain from an Anglo font set. This surname appears to be equivalent to Ó Crualoaich, or O'Crowley.
Compare with the entries under 1500s, "The parish of Drumagarner 'became merged...," and under 1610, "The parishes of Tamlaght O'Crilly, Kilrea, ..."
|1609-07-01||"In the year 1609 King James I. proposed that the City of London should undertake the work of colonising part of the north of Ireland, which had become vested in the Crown by the attainder of the Earl of Tyrone and others. The mayor thereupon sent precepts to the companies, which are dated the 1st July 1609, accompanied by some reasons to induce the citizens of London to undertake a plantation in the north parts of Ireland. The king's proposals were received by the companies, and the Irish Society was formed to treat with the Crown concerning the new plantation."||City of London Livery Companies' Commission (1884), pg. 11.|
||Before the land
in the escheated counties was allocated to undertakers,
including the London companies, a cartographic survey was
made of the lands in the six northern counties of Ireland.
(1) When the survey was made, the barony of Loughinsholin was still part of the county of Coleraine.
(2) "Loughinsholin--The baronial map of 1609 presents this barony in two sections, the first containing the ancient territories of Killetragh, Tomlagh (Tamlaght), Tarraghter, and Melannagh; the second section is bounded on the east by Lough Beg and the river Bann; on the south-east, by Lough Neagh; on the south-west, west, and north-west, by the barony of Dungannon, and on the north, by the barony of Strabane. This whole section is represented as generally covered with woods, but free from bogs. The castle of 'Toime,' between Lough Neagh and Lough Begg, is represented as in a ruinous or decayed state. The second section is shown on the map as also very much wooded, with several patches of bog in the Clandonel territory."
(3) The portion of the O'Cahan's land that would be allotted to the Mercers' Company, a group of merchants associated with the silk trade, was marked on the barony map of 1609 as Clandonnell. Brian Carragh O'Neill was chieftain.
(1877), pg. 387.
(2) Hill (1877), pg. 390.
(3) The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 7.
Link to Speede's map, 1610/11.
|1609||The English shired a sizeable portion off the county Tyrone, a "very valuable fragment, known as the barony of Loughinsholin," adding these lands to the county of Coleraine. After adding another fragment "from the County of Donegal, on the western side of the Foyle; and still another from the County of Antrim, on the eastern side of the Bann," the County of Londonderry was formed.||Hill (1889),
pp. 42, 81.
For a previous appropriation from the county of Tyrone, see the entry under 1585, "The English shired lands off..."
||The parishes of
Tamlaght O'Crilly, Drumargarner, Kilrea, and Desertoghill
were amalgamated to form the Roman Catholic parish of
Compare with the entry under 1609, " (1) In his reiteration and analysis..."
||King James I
and the City of London signed articles of agreement for
the plantation of the City of Derry and the County of
James I granted a charter, "by which The Irish Society was
incorporated, and the whole of the land comprised in the
plantation was granted to that society," and by which
charter, the county of Londonderry was created."
||City of London
Livery Companies' Commission (1884),
Link to Grant of Charter by James I.
Under the heading, "Londoners' Letts and Hinderances," one
of the London Companies' several complaints to the
Government was, that "Sir Toby Calfeild and other
gentlemen pretending interests in the lands to be granted
to the city of London not being compounded with, refuse to
surrender, notwithstanding their (the council's) former
order. A particular of Sir Toby Caulfeild's lands which he
demands in the barony of Loughinsholin and Coleraine:--The
Grange of Agheighter, 2 balliboes; Inish Rush, 2
balliboes; Tyaner, 2 balliboes; Moynegrana, 2 balliboes.
Also the lands of Kilreagh quarter, viz., Fallawghy, one
balliboe; Bally Leyeregney, one balliboe; Clare Leytrim,
one balliboe; Bally Nealane, one balliboe; Bally Aulagh alias Fullaghy, 2
balliboes. Likewise the lands of Athgeave in the barony of
Coleraine, viz., Glashart, one balliboe; Mullaghmac, one
balliboe; Quilmore, one balliboe; Coolero, one balliboe;
Gaynebeg, one balliboe."
The Government's reply to this complaint entailed: "The abbey of Armagh was demised by his Majesty to Sir Toby, about seven years since, before the plantation was intended; and after the first project, the said abbey, with his (Chichester's) special allowance was passed in fee-farm to Sir Toby, being a servitor. Since which the whole barony of Coleraine (within which divers balliboes are found to be parcels of the possession of the said abbey) are by the contract with the Londoners to be passed to the City. He (Chichester) must therefore put them in possession, and compound with Sir Toby, who has received so many benefits from his Majesty."
And so it came to pass, that Chichester "compounded with Sir Toby," who "freely surrendered" the required lands to the Londoners, "which so pleased the King that he wrote to Chichester in the following terms:--'In consideration of the dutiful conformity the King has found in Sir Toby Caulfield, in surrendering up at his (the King's) request, his lands which were claimed by the Londoners as theirs by the Articles of plantation; and of having heard him generally so well reported of, both for his ability in his profession, which is arms, and for his carefulness in the administration of the civil affairs of the counties of Tyrone and Armagh, with which he has been principally entrusted since the departure of the fugitive traitors from thence, his Majesty thinks him well worthy of the liberal testimony of his services given by him (Chichester) and the council of Ireland. Since his (Sir Toby's) coming over his Majesty has had speech with him touching the state of the plantation, and the King's other affairs there, and has received full information and satisfaction from him. And Sir Toby being now on his return into Ireland, his Majesty wishes him to be admitted as a privy councillor, and authorises him (Chichester) to give him the customary oath. Westminster, 13th Feb., 1612-13.'"
Note: As Hill remarked, the names cited in the grant to Sir Toby (ref. 1607-06-04, above) differed "considerably in form from the denominations mentioned in this complaint of the Londoners, but they are intended to designate the same lands."
See also 1607-06-04, "(1) "The monasteries of the Canons Regular..."; and, 1609, "(1) "[Q]uoted from a 1609 Inquisition..."
||(1) "Soon after
the granting of this charter the Irish Society, after
reserving in trust for the companies the ferries,
fisheries, and town lands of the city of Derry and town of
Coleraine, divided the residue of the lands granted to it
by the charter into 12 equal portions for distribution
amongst the 12 principal companies of the city of London."
(2) "The city raised by contribution among its principal companies the sum of 60,000l. in all, of which the share of the Mercers' Company was 5,000l. The companies were assessed according to the proportion in which they contributed for corn, and the Mercers' Company was assessed at 410l. for the first 5,000l., being at their customary rate of 820 in 10,000 quarters of corn. They complained of the rate, but they could get no redress, and on being called upon for 410l. of the second 5,000l. they absolutely refused to pay, upon which two of the wardens were committed to the Compter by the Lord Mayor, but were released upon payment of the contribution. The Common Council thereupon reduced the mercers' corn rate from 820 to 620 quarters, and they afterwards paid 310l. to the third 5,000l. The total sum paid by the Mercers' Company towards this undertaking was 4,317l. 9s. 3d."
|City of London
Livery Companies' Commission (1884), (1) pg. 210, (2) pg. 11.
||(1) The Irish
Society distributed the 12 portions to the London
Companies. "The portion allotted to the Mercers' Company
comprised most of the parishes of Kilrea and [the northern
portion of] Tamlaght O'Crilly together with a small
portion of Desertoghill--about 21,000 acres in all."
(2) "The Irish Society, in whom the whole of the county of London-
derry had been vested by letters patent, dated the 29th March 1613, by deed dated the 15th October 1618, erected a part of the county into the manor of mercers, and afterwards by feoffment, dated the 17th October 1618, conveyed the same to the Mercers' Company, subject to the conditions on which the city had undertaken the plantation."
|(1) The Fairy
Thorn (1984), pp. 5, 7; and, Kernohan (1912), pg. 10.
(2) City of London Livery Companies' Commission (1884), pg. 11.
- grants to the London Companies
- termon lands claimed by Bishop Montgomery
deposition taken in 1613, we gather an interesting picture
of a Franciscan friar in the woods of Loughinsholin
exhorting the native Irish to adhere to the religion of
Rome. There was an audience of about one thousand people,
whom he urged to reform their wicked lives and not to be
tempted by fear or desire of gain to enter the 'English'
churches, telling them that 'those were devil's words
which the English ministers spake, and all should be
damned who heard them.' He assured them he was sent by the
Pope, who had a care for their bodies and souls, and would
help them. At the end of the sermon, this prophet in the
wilderness was presented with a great gift of oxen, sheep,
and money, in order, it was thought, to be sent away later
to the friars of Louvain."
Note: This anecdote was related in a section addressing the state of religion in the north of Ireland, beginning with the sentence, "In the early years of the Plantation, religion was at a low ebb among both people and preachers, although there were many godly ministers of Puritan persuasion through the country." In this section, Kernohan also discussed the dim view taken by the chaplain to Charles I of the "Scotch" religion.
||(1) License to
hold the lands in mortmain were granted to the Mercers'
(2) Work commenced on the erection of a castle at Movanagher.
(2) The Fairy Thorn (1984), pp. 5-6.
||"Most of these
lands must have been pretty well covered with trees when
the settlers arrived, for the great forest of Glenconkein
and Killetragh terminated somewhere about the northern
bounds of Loughinsholin barony, which the Londoners
insisted on getting, because of the vast amount of timber
old ruined church at Kilrea was 're-edified' by the
Mercers' Company for the English churchmen [i], Tamlaght
O'Crilly was the parish church, Kilrea being an
extra-parochial district held by the incumbent of Tamlaght
or 'Churchtown' as it is called in Presbyterian
Note [i]: The "re-edification" converted the denomination of Kilrea church from Roman Catholic to Episopalian (Protestant), under the auspices of the Established Church, or the Church of Ireland.
|"The Story of
the Presbyterian Church at Kilrea," by Miss Clark
(Londonderry: W. Gailey, 1897); cited in The Fairy Thorn
(1984), pg. 66.
See also entry under 1622, "(1) There were two churches, …"
survey of Sir Thomas Phillips states that the principal
house at Movanagher was of three storeys, "slated with
circular towers with conical roofs at each angle of the
house, with two red brick chimneys standing at the side of
the bawn. The bawn is square, the wall of stone with red
brick battlements. At three of the angles of the bawn,
circular flankers with slated roofs of conical form. Under
the house is written 'Mr. Valentine Hartop.'" Four,
two-storied houses had been erected, three of which were
occupied by Mr.
Madder, minister, Dixons, and Charles Williams.
There were also four small, thatched houses, beside one of
which was occupied by Thomas Bromley.
In 1622, a map was drawn of the Worshipful Company of Mercers' buildings at Movanagher. There were three freeholders, fifty-two "British" men, and 145 native Irish on the Mercers' estate.
Capt. Nicholas' survey (1618-19); cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 2.
Kernohan (1912), pg. 11.
Note: According to Kernohan, "Mr. Madder, minister" was the Rev. Oliver Mather, who was recorded as the rector of Tamlaght O'Crilly in the Ulster Visitation Book of 1622.
December 1618 and 28th March 1619, Capt. Nicholas Pynnar
surveyed "the state of the Plantation of his Majesty's
escheated lands in Ulster."
(1757), pg. 126.
Link to transcription of segment pertaining to Mercers' Hall, at Movanagher, with a footnote from Hill (1877).
1618-10-17, The manors of the
Kilrea estate were conveyed to the Mercers' Company.
"Robert Goodwin, representing the Irish Society, did enter
Movanagher, and at the castle there did give and deliver
full and peaceable possession of all the manor lands unto
Richard Vernon, agent attorney of the Mercers, who had
received instructions earlier in the year. ... [T]he
witnesses present were Oliver Mather, Clerk; Robert
Thornton, Wm. Perry, Thos. Hudson, John Hudson, Ralph
Vernon, Donell O'Quin, Charles Williams, William Cofton,
Hugh O'Curan. With the exception of the first four, they
signed with a mark. Charles Williams was one of the
freeholders, and occupied one of the frame houses at
(2) The first agent of the Mercers' Company was Richard Vernon [per J.W. Kernohan] or Mr. Warner [per letters written by George Canning]. Muster Roll cited Richard Vernon as the Chief Tenant, with 17 men bearing arms.
(3) "The townlands mentioned in the early grants to the Mercers' company corresponded roughly to the present names, though some of them becoming obsolete it is impossible to identify all the old divisions. In the 1618 grant the following are recited [followed by modern townland names]: Mayannaher [Movanagher], Clara Letrim [Claragh?], Leah Leava [?], Monygran, Killyfaddy [?], Nergena [Erganagh?], Moynock, Lisleah, ffalla Cogey [Fallahogy], Lisnagrott, Lanvore [?], Carnroo [Carnroe], Tawlett [Tamlaght?], Coldrum Drena [?]. It will be observed that Kilrea is not mentioned. Apparently it was not then in the hands of the company; and the denominations of the townlands composing it--Ballynealane and Ballyawlagh--though marked on the 1609 Barony maps are now quite lost."
(4) The Mercers' Company obtained the monastery lands at Kilrea and Agivey from Sir Toby Caulfield, which lands were then "given to Thomas Church of Yorkshire. The monastery church in Kilrea was taken over by the Planters after 1618 and used by the Church of Ireland until 1844 when the present church was built."
|(1) Kernohan (1906).
(2) Kernohan (1906). Also, Letters written by Mr. George Canning, agent of the Ironmongers' Company, cited in The Fairy Thorn, pg. 3. Note: Pynnar cited Vernon. (Source: Hill (1877), pg. 581); and, Kernohan (1912), pg. 11.
(3) Kernohan (1912), pp. 6-7.
(4) Research by Mrs. Kathleen Gillen; cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 82.
Note: Unfortunately, the names of many of these townlands [designated with ?, to the left] did not survive to the modern era, or survived in a different form.
Linde Lunney posted her analysis of the townland name, "Nergena," to the Bann Valley Genealogy web site; see:
There is a "Leitrim hill" in Claragh townland, making it seem likely that this was Clara Leitrim c.1618.
Note re: (4) See entry under 1612/13-02-13, "Under the heading, "Londoners' Letts and Hinderances."
Mercers' Company took possession of the manor lands, the
Protestants worshipped at the parish church at
Drumnacannon, and in the churches at Desertoghill and
Kilrea. The Catholics did not have a place of worship, so
they met to hear Holy mass at Mass rocks, as at Lismoyle,
and at the priest's stone in Moynock, in prehistoric
forts, and in a place known as Plantation Grove in the
woods on the monastery grounds at Kilrea. "There was no house of worship for them until a
small chapel was built at Craigavole [in the parish of
Desertoghill] in 1734."
||The Fairy Thorn
(1984), pp. 80; and, Research by Mrs. Kathleen Gillen;
cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 82.
||(1) There were
two churches [i], one in each of Kilrea and Tamlaght
O'Crilly. The buildings "were in a state of decay and ruin
when the Londoners came. It is recorded that the Mercers'
Company 'repayred' the Kilrea Church, and that Tamlaght
Church had a roof of timber only." Note [i]: Church of
(2) "The Church of Kilreagh is repayred by ye Company of Mercers, London. The Incumbent or Vicar is Robert Hogg, an antient of Mr of Arts, and a preacher. The valuacion in the King's Books is xxxs, wch is about the fourth part of the cleare value. The vicesima is xviiid. There is a Towneland of glebe belonging to it, on wch ye Incumbent intends (as he saith) to build a sufficient house very shortly. The Incumbent is resident, and dischargeth the Cure himself."
(3) "Bishop Downham's Report in 'The Estate of the Diocese of Derry' showed the condition of Tamlaght Church in 1622. 'The Church of Tamlaght-O-Croyly hath good walls and a roof of timber, but not covered. The incumbent is Oliver Mather, Clerical preacher. The incumbent (lyving not far from his church) dischargeth the cure himself.' Mr. Mather was also incumbent of Killaloughy."
(4) "The Church of Tawlaght O'Croyly hath good walls and a roofe of timber but not covered. The Incumbent is Oliver Mather, Cleark, Preacher. The valuacion in the King's Books is xli, wch is about the thirde part of the true value. The vicesima xg. A gort, or old glebe, 12 acres, belonging to ye parish, and of newe glebe one Townland, a Tymber frame of building provided for it. Meanewhile the Incumbent (lyving not far fr his Church) dischargeth the cure himself."
(1912), pg. 34.
(2) Reynell (1896), pg. 254.
(3) Kernohan (1906).
(4) Reynell (1896), pg. 254.
Re: the Rev. Oliver Mather, see also a mention of Mr. Madder in the entry under 1615-1625, "The survey of Sir Thomas Phillips…"
||(1) "[I]n Glenconkeyne much small timber was
left standing which was unfit for building, and could not
be used for pipe-staves and other "cloven-ware," as the
exportation thereof was prohibited. Sir J. Phillips
suggested that the establishment of iron mills there would
prove a great source of revenue, and would greatly
strengthen the country with English. The Privy Council
therefore, in the following year, made an order for the
establishment of iron-works in Glenconkeyne."
(2) Works for smelting iron were constructed at Patterson's Lough (formerly known as The Forge Lough). The Mercers' Company brought two smiths from England, named Mowbray (or Mayberry) and Hodgins. The excellence of the iron forged at Kilrea was attributed to the addition of holly into the smelting furnaces.
|(1) Lyons (1883), pp. 656ff.
(2) The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 22.
||(1) The Privy
Council ordered the "inhabitants of the county of
Londonderry…to clear the lands bordering on the [river]
Bann, of all trees and bushes within 200 yards of the
river, within three years and the lords and freeholders on
the Antrim side were to do the like."
(2) The Mercers' estate comprised "47 townlands, 29 of which were planted with Irish tenants. The yearly rents amounted to £166 10s. 4d. Also 18 townlands were planted with English tenants, … [O]n the Londoners' lands woodfelling was a chief part of the occupation of the settlers. For instance, from the woods of Killetra there were cut down for the building of Derry, 50,000 oaks at 10s. apiece, 100,000 ashes at 5s., and 10,000 elms at 6s. 8d. each. After clearing the lands and draining the marshes, ploughing would be resorted to, especially by the Scotch."
|(1) The Fairy
Thorn (1984), pg. 1.
(2) Kernohan (1906).
churches of Kilrea and Tamlaght O'Crilly (Church of
Ireland) were served by the same rector.
(1912), pg. 34.
||"On 27th May,
1625, a number of Articles were submitted by the King's
direction to the Common Council. They had reference to
letting the lands to freeholders and also to leaseholders
for lives, but specially debarred the transference of
estates to other men. The Mercers were to make six
freeholders of one balliboe each (about 60 acres) and ten
leaseholders for lives, the former to pay ninepence
English the acre and the latter twelvepence. ... [The
London companies] could not or would not bring over
sufficient English. The survey of 1622 shows the Mercers
to have three freeholders only, and no lessees.
"We know but little of the early freeholders on the Mercers' estate, but it is probable that the Moyletratory freehold (the Grove) was in the hands of the Church family from 1625. In 1636 Slaghtneil was let to Shane O'Gillin, and Knockoneil to Gronie O'Quigg. Drumsara was at a very early date in the possession of the Beresfords, and Boveedy belonged to the family of Cary."
See also the entry under 1637, "Sir Thomas Philips..."
||There were 87
men on the Mercers' estate.
(1912), pg. 11.
O'Crilly was the Roman Catholic priest of Kilreagh, Vicar
O'Cully [O'Crilly] of Tamlaght O'Crilly, and Prior McKedy
of Disert Troghell.
(2) Vicar O'Cully (Patrick O'Crilly) was named as the rector of Tamlaght O'Crilly.
(3) Father Patrick O'Crilly celebrated Mass at the Mass rock in Moynock where, if the threat of discovery became imminent, the celebrants could escape into the bog. "It is thought that it was at Moynock Mass rock that St. Oliver Plunket ordained 20 young priests. Burials took place in nearby Burial Hill near Lislea Old School."
|(1) Report by
Sir Thomas Phillips, of Limavady, to Charles I; in The
Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 80.
(2) Parish of Greenlough (2006).
(3) Research by Mrs. Kathleen Gillen; cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 82.
||A Presbyterian manse was built on the site of the old church in Drumagarner--"perhaps with the stones of the old church. This manse was in use until 1779 when the Rev. Smyth moved into Kilrea."||The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 80.|
||(1) The Court
of Star Chamber revoked and declared void the charter,
granted by James I. to the Irish Society.
(2) "Sir Thomas Philips proved a veritable thorn in the flesh to the Londoners in the early years of Charles's reign, but his vigilance is specially seen in the letter which he wrote as one of the Commissioners, and in which he charged the Companies with violating the conditions of Plantation, thinking only of their advantage. ... The result was, three informations were laid in the Court of Star Chamber, and judgment was given in 1637, that the letters patent of 29th March 1613, be cancelled and annuled, and the premises granted to the Irish Society seized into the hands of the King. The charges against the City need not be detailed here further than to say that they came under the general heads of obtaining more land than it was the King's intention to grant; of retaining the Irish upon their lands in preference to the English and Scots, because the Irish paid higher rents; of cutting down the woods for merchandise instead of for purely Plantation purposes."
|(1) City of
London Livery Companies' Commission (1884), pg. 11.
(2) Kernohan (1906); cites the year, that the letters patent were revoked, as 1637.
See also the entries under 1625-05-27, "On 27th May, 1625, …," and under 1638, "Finally, the King, …," and under 1651, "Under Charles I, allegations of mismanagement..."
||Mr. Edward Rowly became the lessee of Drumagarner townland and sixty-eight other townlands. Mr. Rowly's father was the agent of the Irish Society. The Rowley family were of Lawton, Cheshire, and had settled at Castleroe in county Derry.||The Fairy Thorn Revisited (1996), pg. 109.|
King, in 1638, after receiving a fine, issued a pardon and
released the City and the Companies from all trusts
respecting the Plantation, the lands having already been
See also the entries under 1625-05-27, "On 27th May, 1625, …" and 1637, "Sir Thomas Philips proved…"
obtained a license, from the Bishop of Derry, to build a
mill at Tamlaght O'Crilly.
D683/98, per index entry in online catalogue,
www.proni.gov.uk (accessed 2015-01-20).
Charles I, allegations of mismanagement and
non-performance of agreements and covenants were made
against the London Companies. "[T]he City was fined
£70,000, the Irish lands were seized by the King, and the
Companies' tenants were turned out of possession." The
Companies' Irish tenants petitioned Parliament against
these proceedings, requesting restoration of the charter
to the Companies [which the House ordered in 1641]. While
the legal wranglings ensued in London, rebellion broke
"[T]he English and Scotch settlers were worsted at Garvagh in December, 1641, a garrison having been placed there under Edward Rowley, Esq., of Castleroe. In the engagement that took place, one of the Cannings of Garvagh was killed, having taken refuge, it is said, in the old church of Desert. But the most terrible local event of that critical period for the Protestantism of Ulster was the massacre of Protestant soldiers which took place at Portna on the 2nd of January following." [Kernohan (1912), pg. 52.]
The Rev. Richard Collins, rector of the parishes of Kilrea and Tamlaght O'Crilly, "fled to Coleraine, and perished in the siege of that place." The Mercers' fortified house was burnt during the rebellion. It had been standing at Movanagher since 1616. The Erenagh of Desertoghill, O'Tuothall Buidhe (Yellow O'Tohill), the last chief of the family, "forfeited his land to the Crown for assisting Phelim O'Neil in the 1641 Rebellion."
In Eden townland, parish of Tamlaght O'Crilly, Sir Phelim Roe O'Neill was said to have encamped upon an eminence, since memorialized in his name, Knock Phelim Roe. (OSM)
(1912), pp. 13-14, 16-17, 34, 52.
The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 3.
Research by Mrs Kathleen Gillen; cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 81.
Ordnance Survey Memoirs (OSM).
See also entry under 1637, "Sir Thomas Philips…"
|c.1641||"[L]arge numbers of Scotch, hardier in constitution than their English comrades, were introduced on the Companies' estates, only to be driven out when the great rebellion of that year began."||Kernohan (1912), pg. 53.|
||All the British
were cleared out of county Derry. There were no British
inhabitants upon the land, all the buildings were
demolished and, thus, there were no rents.
(1912), pg. 16.
||(1) The first
Presbyterian church in the parish of Kilrea was erected at
Moyknock. "The first [Presbyterian Church], which was
erected in 1643 at Moyknock, was destroyed in a season of
(2) There was a Presbyterian congregation at Moynock c.1642-43. The meeting-house was burnt about that time, it is supposed, by Coll Ciotach (also known as Alaster McDonnell), at about the same time as the Portna massacre. According to Miss Clark, "Nearly all the Moyknock farmers [c.1897] are Presbyterians, descendants of the original colonists."
(1912), pg. 42. On page 52, Kernohan wrote: "Tradition has
it that about this date  the meeting-house of the
Scots Presbyterians at Moyknock was destroyed."
(2) "The Story of the Presbyterian Church at Kilrea," by Miss Jane Clark (Londonderry: W. Gailey, 1897); cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 66.
|| "Some crannogs in the south of
the county of Londonderry were besieged in the Irish wars
in the time of Charles I. One at Loughinsholin was
garrisoned by Shane O'Hagan. On his refusal to surrender,
the enemy contrived to flood the island. 'The garrison
kept watch in the island house, and one of their men was
killed by a cannon ball while on watch. However, they
refused to surrender the island on any terms. One man in
attempting to swim away had his leg broken. The enemy at
"It seems plain that, in this case, the elevation of the hut on the island, saved the garrison from the effect of the flooding.
Two years afterwards, viz., in 1645, we read that the people of O'Hagan burned the Inis O'Lynn for want of provisions, and followed the general eastward."
|Stuart (1868), pg. 134.|
after the rebellion, the Presbyterians of Kilrea and
Tamlaght moved removed to Boveedy, in the parish of
Tamlaght O'Crilly. The first minister at Boveedy was the
Rev. William Gilchrist.
The following explanation was offered by Miss Jane Clark (1897) for the selection of Boveedy for the Presbyterians' next meeting-house:
"It has also been suggested that as Presbyterianism was frowned on by the state in the latter 1600's the Mercers' Co. was not willing to grant sites for building churches. This was why, perhaps, Boveedy was chosen as the site of the next meeting house after the one in Moynock had been destroyed. Boveedy was, apparently, one of six freeholds on the Mercers' estate and the ground was donated by the owner, Mr. Carey." (Clark)
(1912), pg. 53.
The Story of the Presbyterian Church at Kilrea, by Miss Jane Clark (Londonderry: W. Gailey, 1897); cited in The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 66.
The Fairy Thorn (1984), pg. 69.
See also the entry under 1650, "It is traditionally reported..."
|1649||(1) During the
parliamentary war, Movanagher was garrisoned for King
Charles I. Shortly afterwards, it fell into the hands of
the Cromwellians, by whom, after being repeatedly taken
and retaken, it was finally dismantled in 1649.
(2) "Afterwards, the agent's residence was removed to Kilrea O'Diamond and the settlers who lived round the castle at Movanagher quitted the place and came to live in the neighbourhood of Kilrea old church."
(2) The Fairy Thorn (1984), pp. 3, 7.
||The plague in
Ireland was connected, directly and indirectly, with the
military operations under Ireton and Cromwell.
||History of Epidemics in Britain, Vol. I, pg. 371.|
(A) In The Famines of the World (Walford, 1879) and A History of Epidemics in Britain (Creighton, 1891), are mentioned the following episodes of scarcity and plague in Ireland, which may, or may not, have occurred in the regions comprising the modern territorial divisions of the parishes of Kilrea and Tamlaght O'Crilly:
1601-1603: Great scarcity and want in Ireland. Cannibalism reported. (Walford)
1649-1650: The plague in Ireland was connected, directly and indirectly, with the military operations under Ireton and Cromwell. (Creighton, pg. 371)
Tegg cited the following years in which the plague had occurred in Ireland (pg. 500):
1095: A great mortality.
1111: After Christmas, forcing Henry II. to quit the country.
1172: A prodigious number perished.
1383: A great pestilence, called the fourth, destroyed a great number of the people.
1466: Superinduced by a famine; great numbers died.
1525: A pestilence throughout Ireland.
1649: A dreadful famine in Ireland, from the royal troops destroying the corn, three children seen feeding in one place on their dead mother--and children waylaid and eaten,--people with their mouths green from eating nettles and docks.
(B) This timeline may not be copied, transmitted, or reproduced for profit or for gain--in whole or in part--in any medium, including web sites that ask for donations, feature advertisements, or link directly or indirectly to any commercial concern. Please use our Contact page to forward questions about usage, or suggestions for inclusion.
© Alison Kilpatrick 2015